In that article I covered monads, monoids, and functors. Now we have one last bit of scary functional jargon, lambdas.
A lambda is an anonymous function that can be treated like a value. 
We actually saw some of these in the previous post. These were
In this case we create an anonymous function and assign it to the variable
joinGryffindor. We then pass this as an argument to
map. We could also just pass this anonymous function directly like so:
This is a common pattern, passing a lambda, or an anonymous function to a higher order function.
Now the scarier term Lambda Calculus. Let's break this down. Lambdas are anonymous functions, we just learned that.
Why don't we define calculus now? If we pull up the dictionary definition we get the following
A method of computation or calculation in a special notation (as of logic or symbolic logic. 
Lambda Calculus is just a formal way of defining functions using special notation. Less scary now, right?
Let's dive just a little more into it. Lambda Calculus, or the formal notation for defining functions, is composed of three elements variables, functions, and applications. 
I'm going to go ahead and heavily paraphrase this great article from learn x in y minutes.
We know these, variables are used in programming all the time, and we can name them anything. Lets go with one named
We know these too! We use functions in our code, and that's why you're reading an article on functional programming. In lambda calculus they use a special syntax:
λ<parameters>.<body>. As an example
λx.x is the identity function. 
This is a new word, but we see this all the time too. This is the act of calling a function. So if a function is the function declaration, this is the actual function call.
The syntax for this even involves parentheses!
(λx.x)a calls the identity function with the argument
||a variable named “x”|
||a function with parameter “x” and body “x”|
||calling the function “λx.x” with argument “a”|
Let's finish up with a comparatively straightforward term. What is a predicate? A predicate is just a function that returns true or false . It's most commonly used as criteria for a filter.
Here's a predicate:
I'd like to reiterate, none of this is important to your day to day code. But if you were curious what all those scary FP terms mean hopefully this satisfied that curiosity.
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